about the plants:


As far as possible the latest changes in taxonomy will be taken into account. In general, for European orchids species names will be used as in Pierre Delforge, 2006. Note, that the original genus Orchis has been divided by Pridgeon et al., (Lindleana 12(2): 89-109,1997) and the Orchis morio clade with 2n=36 chromosomes has been transferred to AnacamptisA absolutely necessary and well supported move. As you may not be used to the new names, in the plantlist the original genus Orchis is given in brackets.

 2. About the origin of the plants.

A legal stock of mother plants, controlled by the local authorities exists since many years in the nursery. Several species from the genera Anacamptis, Orchis and Ophrys are cultivated outside in the garden and are completely hardy in southern Bavaria. Those species as Ophrys apifera, Ophrys insectifera, Ophrys fuciflora, Ophrys sphegodes, Anacamptis morio, Anacamptis coriophora, Anacamptis palustris and Anacamptis pyramidalis were crossed with originally not hardy mediterranean species. The resulting hardiness of the offspring is given within the hybrid description. Seeds and pollinia were obtained from Botanic Gardens within Europe. Pollen and seeds were also obtained from Australia. On the fifth continent, there are some very valueable collections of terrestrial orchids including European species. I am supporting scientific projects in ecology and conservation of orchids and will be always prepared to help in education.  In case you send seeds for propagation, respect nature conservation laws. Seeds can be harvested only from cultured stock. Thanks go to all, who have contributed with seeds.

3. Cultivation.

All offered plants show a seasonal pattern of growth and dormancy. In the appropriate time, ripe seeds will be sown in soil inoculated with suitable mycorrhizal fungi. In the second year the plantlets will  be transferred outside into garden beds. Once inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus, usually the plants will carry its symbiont during its whole span of live. During periods of dormancy the symbiont will rest as propagules or spores on the surface of the tuber or outlasts within surviving roots. At the begin of the growing season the symbiotic fungus reestablishes itself in the soil, starting from the tuber and later infecting the new roots. In case the soil is not suitable for the fungus, the plants may loose its symbiont. However, in appropriate substrates you will never have to care about the fungus.

As winters can be strong in southern Bavaria, plants will be given a light cover during the most severe periods of frosts. However, still the best cover is a layer of snow. Below 20cm of snow, the temperature will not drop below -5C. In summer, the plants are protected by 50% shade cloth. During periods of active growth 0.2g /l fertilizer (Peters Excell, Kristalon red, or others) is given once or twice, monthly.


Suitable composition of substrates are given within the species descriptions. The best results will be obtained with a wood fibre based substrate. These substrates were first developed in  Switzerland by the Intertoresa AG in cooperation with Prof. Penningsfeld, as a substitute for peat. Raw materials (wood chippings) are shreded under frictional pressure, heat and steam, and simultaneously impregnated with nitrogen, minerals and other valuable substances. A range of differently impregnated wood fibres were given to me by the Intertoresa AG and subsequently  tested for suitability in terrestrial orchid culture. The selected product is now manufactured  and sold as Toresa Orchideenkultursubstrat.

5. Note

From a scientific and conservational point of view, propagation of species is only valuable if the progeny of the seeds is known. This is due to the given enormous variability of natural populations of many terrestrial orchid species and to numerous changes and problems regarding its taxonomy.

Be aware, that hybrids should not be planted into nature, as they may  interfere with  natural populations of species. There may be also competition with species for  natural resources and mycorrhizal fungi.


2000-2012 Heinrich Beyrle